The defect of atria ventricular septum might be partial or full. These disorders belong to a group of the a complex defects of the heart walls.
In the norm, there is a the partition between the right and left atria and right and left ventricles, which prevent the mixing of arterial and venous blood. Also, in each half of a heart ( left and right) , there is a partition that separates the atrium and ventricle. To ensure normal blood flow, in the septum there is a valve that regulates one-sided blood flow from atrium to ventricle and prevents its back flow.
A complete defect of atria ventricular septum, can , in essence, lead to several defects, which include a structural damage of (1) the upper part of the inter ventricular wall, (2) the lower part of the inter atria wall, and (3) a damage of both, mitral and tricuspid, ventricular valves.
Manifestation of heart disease becomes apparent in the first two months of baby’s life. It is related, first of all, to the insufficiency of the atria ventricular valves. The structural damage of the inter atria and inter ventricular septa leads to abnormal blood flow from the left part heart to the right, which, consequently, leads to an overload of the right and left halves of the heart and, as a result of this, greatly increases the pulmonary blood pressure.
Signs of complete atria ventricular defect walls, or, as it is called, the open atria ventricular canal, represents more than half (56%) of heart problems in cases the in fetuses, which are diagnosed at around 30th week of the pregnancy. Echocardiography is the diagnostic test for the fetus heart, which is usually has a cross-shaped structure of four septum with atria ventricular valves. The test allows to visualize structural irregularities in the heart septum and valves, as well.
During baby examination, the child will reveal a shortness of breath, difficulty in sucking and extreme tiredness. It is also possible to hear a noise in the lungs -- a stagnant wheezing, and to detect tachycardia and enlarged liver (hepatomegaly). All these symptoms indicate at a possible heart failure. Such child will lag behind in development; often suffer from acute respiratory diseases with a tendency to pneumonia.
The treatment of atria ventricular septal defect can be done surgically, only . However, it is desirable to perform the operation in the young age , but no earlier than 6 months. Until then the child will be treated with the conservative methods aimed at relief of symptoms of heart failure, which will include diuretics, digoxin and ACE inhibitors.
During the operation, the septal defect will be closed by applying patches and restore the structure of the mitral and tricuspid valves. The operation will be performed in a specialized surgery room at the Cardiac Center, because it requires special training of doctors and the sophisticated special equipment. Such surgery room exists in our Hospital; the success of this operation performed in our facilities is up to 95%. After the appropriate period of rehabilitation, the quality of life for young patients is greatly improved and stabilized.